Pomeranian temperament-The Inquisitive Mind of Pomeranians 2023

The Pomeranian temperament is as captivating as its luxurious, fluffy coat. Renowned for its small size and vivacious personality, the Pomeranian is an endearing companion dog with a delightful demeanor.

Pomeranian temperament encompasses a unique blend of intelligence, curiosity, and spirited energy, making it an engaging and entertaining breed to be around. They are confident and self-assured nature. Despite its diminutive stature, this breed exudes an abundance of courage and boldness, often displaying fearlessness in the face of new experiences.

Moreover, Pomeranians possess a lively and inquisitive disposition, eagerly exploring their surroundings with an insatiable curiosity. Their bright, expressive eyes and alert ears are a testament to their keen awareness of the world around them, always ready to engage in playful interactions and adventures.

In addition to their adventurous spirit, Pomeranians are renowned for their loyal and affectionate nature. These little dogs form strong bonds with their owners, often showering them with unwavering love and devotion. While they may be wary of strangers at first, Pomeranians are known to warm up quickly, showcasing their amiable and sociable side. 

What is the Pomeranian breed?

Pomeranian temperament

The Pomeranian is a small and fluffy dog breed that belongs to the Toy Group. Originating from the region of Pomerania, which is now part of modern-day Poland and Germany, Pomeranians are named after this area. They are descendants of larger sled-pulling and herding dogs, but through selective breeding, they were miniaturized to their current size.

Pomeranians are known for their distinctive appearance, characterized by a profuse double coat that comes in a variety of colors and patterns. Their dense and fluffy fur, coupled with a plume-like tail that arches over their back, gives them an elegant and regal appearance.

In terms of size, Pomeranians are considered one of the smallest dog breeds. They typically weigh between 3 to 7 pounds (1.4 to 3.2 kilograms) and stand about 6 to 7 inches (15 to 18 centimeters) tall at the shoulder. Despite their small size, they possess a sturdy and compact build.

Apart from their physical characteristics, Pomeranians are cherished for their lively and affectionate personality. They are often described as spirited, intelligent, and curious dogs. Pomeranians thrive on attention and enjoy being in the company of their human companions.

While they can be lively and energetic, they also have a gentle and loving nature, making them suitable as family pets or companions for individuals of various lifestyles.

Due to their small size and relatively low exercise requirements, Pomeranians can adapt well to apartment living. However, they still benefit from daily walks and mental stimulation to keep them happy and healthy.

Personality traits and temperament of Pomeranians

Pomeranians are known for their distinctive personality traits and temperament. Here are some key characteristics that are commonly associated with Pomeranians:

  1. Lively and Energetic: Pomeranians have a vibrant and energetic nature. They are often full of enthusiasm and enjoy engaging in playful activities. Despite their small size, they possess a surprising amount of energy and can keep up with active lifestyles.
  2. Intelligent and Alert: Pomeranians are highly intelligent dogs. They are quick to learn and can easily pick up new commands and tricks. Their alertness and sharpness make them attentive to their surroundings, and they are often vigilant watchdogs, alerting their owners to any potential threats.
  3. Curious and Inquisitive: Pomeranians have a natural curiosity and love to explore their environment. They are often interested in investigating new sights, sounds, and smells. This curiosity contributes to their spirited and adventurous nature.
  4. Confident and Fearless: Despite their small stature, Pomeranians are known for their confidence and fearlessness. They often display a bold and self-assured attitude, which can make them unafraid of new experiences and unfamiliar situations.
  5. Affectionate and Loyal: Pomeranians form strong bonds with their owners and are known for their unwavering loyalty. They thrive on human companionship and enjoy being at the center of attention. Pomeranians are often affectionate and enjoy cuddling and snuggling with their loved ones.
  6. Sociable and Friendly: Pomeranians generally have a friendly and sociable nature. They are often amiable towards other animals and enjoy interacting with people. However, early socialization is essential to ensure that they develop proper social skills and remain comfortable in various social settings.
  7. Independent: Pomeranians also possess a certain level of independence. They can exhibit a self-reliant nature and may occasionally display stubbornness or a desire for personal space. Positive reinforcement-based training can help manage and channel their independent streak effectively.

It’s important to note that individual Pomeranians may vary in temperament, and early socialization, training, and consistent positive reinforcement play a significant role in shaping their behavior.

How to socialize a Pomeranian

Pomeranian temperament

Socializing a Pomeranian is an important process that helps them develop positive behaviors and adapt to various social situations. Here are some steps to effectively socialize your Pomeranian:

1. Start Early: Begin socializing your Pomeranian as early as possible, ideally during the puppy stage. Early socialization allows them to become familiar with different people, animals, and environments when they are most receptive to learning.

2. Positive Experiences: Ensure that all socialization experiences are positive and rewarding for your Pomeranian. Use treats, praise, and play to create positive associations with new people, animals, and environments. This helps them build confidence and associate social situations with enjoyable experiences.

3. Gradual Exposure: Introduce your Pomeranian to new experiences gradually and at a pace they are comfortable with. Start with low-stress environments and gradually expose them to more challenging situations. For example, begin by introducing them to calm and friendly dogs before progressing to busier dog parks.

4. Socialize with People: Expose your Pomeranian to different types of people, including men, women, children, and individuals of various ethnicities. Encourage gentle interactions and reward your dog for calm and friendly behavior. Arrange playdates with well-behaved dogs and supervised interactions with other animals.

5. Environmental Desensitization: Expose your Pomeranian to various environments and stimuli, such as different surfaces, noises, and objects. This helps them become comfortable and confident in new situations. Gradually introduce them to different locations, such as parks, busy streets, and public places, while ensuring their safety.

6. Ongoing Socialization: Socialization is an ongoing process throughout your Pomeranian’s life. Continue exposing them to new experiences, people, and animals regularly to reinforce positive social behaviors. Attend obedience classes or training sessions to provide structured socialization opportunities.

7. Stay Calm and Positive: Remain calm and confident during socialization exercises. Your Pomeranian can pick up on your emotions, so it’s essential to project a positive and relaxed attitude. Avoid overprotectiveness or coddling, as it may reinforce fear or anxiety.

8. Seek Professional Help: If you encounter challenges during the socialization process or if your Pomeranian displays fear or aggression, consider consulting a professional dog trainer or behaviorist. They can provide guidance and help address specific issues.

Exercise requirements for a Pomeranian

Pomeranians may be small in size, but they still require regular exercise to stay healthy and happy. Here are some guidelines for meeting the exercise needs of a Pomeranian:

1. Daily Walks: Take your Pomeranian for at least one or two walks every day. A brisk walk around the neighborhood or in a nearby park provides mental stimulation, helps burn off energy, and keeps them physically fit. Aim for a duration of 20 to 30 minutes per walk, adjusted based on your dog’s age, fitness level, and overall health.

2. Playtime: Engage in interactive play sessions with your Pomeranian. They enjoy activities like fetch, tug-of-war, and interactive toys that stimulate their mind and body. Incorporate short play sessions throughout the day to keep them mentally engaged and physically active.

3. Indoor Activities: Pomeranians can also benefit from indoor exercise, especially during inclement weather. Set up obstacle courses, use puzzle toys, or teach them new tricks and commands indoors to keep them mentally and physically stimulated.

4. Socialization with Other Dogs: Arrange playdates with well-behaved and properly vaccinated dogs. Socializing and playing with other dogs not only provide exercise but also fulfill their social needs.

5. Supervised Off-Leash Time: Pomeranians can enjoy some off-leash time in a securely fenced area. However, always supervise them to ensure their safety. Keep in mind that Pomeranians tend to chase small animals, so be cautious in open areas.

6. Mental Stimulation: Pomeranians are intelligent dogs that thrive on mental stimulation. Incorporate activities such as puzzle toys, treat-dispensing toys, and training sessions to challenge their minds. Mental stimulation can tire them out just as much as physical exercise.

7. Monitoring Intensity: Pomeranians have small frames and can be prone to joint issues. Avoid excessively strenuous exercise or jumping from heights that could put stress on their joints. Observe your Pomeranian’s energy levels, breathing, and overall comfort during exercise to ensure they are not overexerted.

Remember that every Pomeranian is unique, and exercise needs may vary based on age, health, and individual preferences.

Common behavioral issues that can affect Pomeranians.

Pomeranian temperament

Like any dog breed, Pomeranians can experience certain behavioral issues that may require attention and training. Here are some common behavioral issues that can affect Pomeranians:

  1. Excessive Barking: Pomeranians are known to be vocal dogs and may tend to bark excessively. This can be due to various reasons, such as boredom, anxiety, fear, or a desire for attention. Consistent training and providing mental and physical stimulation can help address excessive barking.
  2. Separation Anxiety: Pomeranians can develop separation anxiety when they become overly attached to their owners and struggle with being left alone. They may exhibit behaviors like destructive chewing, excessive barking, or house soiling. Gradual desensitization, crate training, and providing them with interactive toys or puzzles can help alleviate separation anxiety.
  3. Fear and Timidity: Some Pomeranians may be more prone to fear and timidity, leading them to exhibit nervous or anxious behavior in certain situations. Early socialization, positive reinforcement training, and exposure to various environments can help build their confidence and reduce fearfulness.
  4. Resource Guarding: Pomeranians can sometimes display possessive behavior over their food, toys, or other items they consider valuable. This can manifest as growling, snapping, or guarding behavior. Consistent training, positive reinforcement, and teaching them to associate positive experiences with sharing resources can help manage and overcome resource guarding.
  5. Aggression: While Pomeranians are generally friendly and sociable, some individuals may display aggressive behavior towards other dogs or even humans. Aggression can stem from fear, territoriality, or lack of socialization. It is important to address aggression promptly and seek professional help from a qualified dog trainer or behaviorist to ensure proper management and behavior modification.
  6. House Soiling: Pomeranians, especially puppies, may struggle with housebreaking and may have accidents indoors. Consistent and positive reinforcement-based potty training, establishing a routine, and providing frequent opportunities for outdoor elimination can help address this issue.

Remember that addressing behavioral issues requires patience, consistency, and positive reinforcement training methods.

Best practices for training a Pomeranian.

Training a Pomeranian requires patience, consistency, and positive reinforcement techniques. Here are some best practices for training a Pomeranian:

  1. Start Early: Begin training your Pomeranian as early as possible, ideally during the puppy stage. Puppies have a greater learning capacity, and early training sets the foundation for their behavior as they grow.
  2. Positive Reinforcement: Use positive reinforcement techniques, such as rewards, treats, praise, and play, to motivate and reward your Pomeranian for desired behaviors. This approach encourages them to associate training with positive experiences and increases their willingness to learn.
  3. Keep Training Sessions Short: Pomeranians have relatively short attention spans, so keep training sessions brief and engaging. Aim for several short sessions throughout the day rather than one long session. This helps maintain their focus and prevents them from becoming bored or overwhelmed.
  4. Use Clear and Consistent Commands: Use clear and concise commands when teaching your Pomeranian. Be consistent with your cues and use the same words or hand signals for specific behaviors. Pomeranians respond well to consistency and repetition.
  5. Socialize and Expose to Various Environments: Socialization is crucial for Pomeranians to develop good behavior and confidence. Expose them to different people, animals, and environments to help them become well-rounded and adaptable. Gradually introduce new experiences, ensuring their safety and using positive reinforcement to build positive associations.
  6. Leash Training: Pomeranians should be trained to walk politely on a leash. Use positive reinforcement to reward them for walking calmly by your side without pulling. Start with short, controlled walks in low-distraction environments and gradually increase the level of difficulty.
  7. Consistency and Persistence: Consistency is key in training a Pomeranian. Use the same rules and expectations consistently to reinforce good behavior. Be patient and persistent, as it may take time for your Pomeranian to fully understand and comply with commands.
  8. Seek Professional Help if Needed: If you encounter challenges or are unsure about certain training techniques, consider seeking guidance from a professional dog trainer or behaviorist. They can provide expert advice, and personalized training plans, and help address specific behavioral issues.

How to introduce a Pomeranian to other pets

Pomeranian temperament

Introducing a Pomeranian to other pets requires a gradual and controlled approach to ensure a positive and harmonious relationship. Here are some steps to help you introduce your Pomeranian to other pets:

1. Prepare the Environment: Before the introduction, create a safe and neutral space for the initial meeting. This can be a room or a controlled area where both animals can be separated if needed.

2. Separate Spaces: Initially, keep the Pomeranian and the other pet in separate spaces, allowing them to become familiar with each other’s scent without direct interaction. This can be done by using baby gates or separate rooms.

3. Controlled Visual Introduction: Once both pets are comfortable with each other’s scent, you can start with a controlled visual introduction. Use a baby gate or a leash to ensure a safe distance between them. Allow them to observe each other without direct physical contact.

4. Positive Associations: During the visual introduction, provide positive associations for both pets. Offer treats, praise, and rewards for calm behavior and positive interactions. This helps them associate each other’s presence with positive experiences.

5. Gradual Physical Introduction: When both pets appear comfortable and relaxed during the visual introduction, you can proceed to a gradual physical introduction. Start by allowing short, supervised periods of physical interaction in a controlled environment. Observe their body language and intervene if necessary.

6. Supervision and Safety: Always supervise interactions between the Pomeranian and the other pet, especially during the initial stages of introduction. This ensures the safety of both animals and allows you to intervene if any signs of aggression or fear arise.

7. Gradual Increase in Interaction: Gradually increase the duration and frequency of interactions between the Pomeranian and the other pet as they become more comfortable with each other. Observe their behavior closely, and if any signs of tension or discomfort arise, slow down the process and provide more time for adjustment.

8. Individual Time and Attention: While introducing your Pomeranian to other pets, continue to give each pet individual time and attention. This helps prevent any feelings of jealousy or rivalry and reinforces their bond with you.

9. Patience and Consistency: The introduction process may take time and patience. Be consistent with the gradual introduction steps, and don’t rush the process. Each pet will have its own unique pace of adjustment, so be patient and allow them to establish a positive relationship at their comfort level.

Grooming requirements for a Pomeranian

Pomeranians have a beautiful, thick double coat that requires regular grooming to keep it healthy and looking its best. Here are the grooming requirements for a Pomeranian:

  1. Brushing: Pomeranians should be brushed at least a few times a week to prevent matting and keep their coat in good condition. Use a slicker brush or a comb with fine teeth to gently remove tangles and loose hair. Pay attention to areas like the chest, belly, and behind the ears, where matting can occur.
  2. Bathing: Pomeranians generally require a bath every three to four weeks or as needed. Use a gentle dog shampoo that is specifically formulated for sensitive skin. Be careful not to wet their face too much and avoid getting water in their ears. After bathing, make sure to thoroughly dry their coat, especially the dense undercoat, to prevent dampness and potential skin issues.
  3. Coat Trimming: Pomeranians have a profuse double coat that should not be shaved, as it can disrupt the natural insulation and protection of their fur. However, regular trimming of the hair around the paws, sanitary areas, and the hind end can help maintain cleanliness and prevent matting.
  4. Nail Trimming: Trim your Pomeranian’s nails regularly to keep them at a comfortable length. Long nails can be uncomfortable for your dog and may cause issues with walking or running. Use a dog nail clipper and be cautious not to cut into the quick, which is the sensitive part of the nail.
  5. Dental Care: Pomeranians are prone to dental problems, so regular dental care is essential. Brush their teeth several times a week using a dog-specific toothbrush and toothpaste. Additionally, provide dental chews or toys that promote dental health.
  6. Eye and Ear Care: Keep an eye on your Pomeranian’s eyes for any signs of redness, discharge, or irritation. Clean the corners of their eyes with a soft, damp cloth as needed. Check their ears regularly for signs of infection or wax buildup and gently clean the ears with a dog ear cleaner solution and cotton balls if necessary.
  7. Professional Grooming: Consider taking your Pomeranian to a professional groomer for a trim, especially if you prefer a specific style or if their coat becomes too unruly to manage on your own. Professional groomers can also provide additional services like nail grinding, teeth cleaning, and expressing the anal glands.

Remember to make grooming a positive experience for your Pomeranian by using treats, praise, and a calm approach.

Nutritional needs of a Pomeranian

Pomeranian temperament

Pomeranians, like all dogs, have specific nutritional needs to support their overall health and well-being. Here are some considerations for meeting the nutritional needs of a Pomeranian:

  1. Balanced Diet: Pomeranians require a balanced diet that provides essential nutrients, including proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals. Feed them high-quality commercial dog food that is specifically formulated for small breeds or toy breeds. Look for a reputable brand that lists real meat as the primary ingredient and does not contain excessive fillers or artificial additives.
  2. Portion Control: Pomeranians are small dogs, so it’s important to provide them with appropriate portion sizes to prevent overfeeding and weight gain. Follow the feeding guidelines provided by the dog food manufacturer, but also monitor your Pomeranian’s body condition and adjust the portion sizes as needed to maintain a healthy weight.
  3. Protein: Protein is crucial for Pomeranians’ growth, muscle maintenance, and overall health. Ensure that their diet includes high-quality animal-based protein sources such as chicken, beef, or fish. The protein content in their food should be sufficient to meet their dietary requirements.
  4. Healthy Fats: Include healthy fats in your Pomeranian’s diet to support their skin and coat health, as well as overall energy levels. Look for dog foods that contain sources of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, such as fish oil or flaxseed, which contribute to a healthy and shiny coat.
  5. Essential Nutrients: Pomeranians require a balanced intake of vitamins and minerals for optimal health. Ensure that their diet includes essential nutrients like vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin C, B-complex vitamins, calcium, phosphorus, and others. These nutrients play important roles in supporting their immune system, bone health, and overall vitality.
  6. Fresh Water: Provide your Pomeranian with fresh and clean water at all times. Hydration is essential for their overall health, digestion, and temperature regulation.
  7. Age-Appropriate Food: Pomeranians have different nutritional needs at different life stages. Choose a dog food that is appropriate for their age, whether they are puppies, adults, or seniors. Puppy food is formulated to support their growth and development, while senior dog food may be lower in calories and has added ingredients to support joint health.
  8. Regular Feeding Schedule: Establish a regular feeding schedule for your Pomeranian and stick to it. Divide their daily food portion into two or three meals to help maintain consistent energy levels and aid in digestion.
  9. Dietary Considerations: Pomeranians may have specific dietary considerations or allergies. If your Pomeranian has any known food allergies or sensitivities, consult with your veterinarian to determine the appropriate diet or if any dietary modifications are necessary.

It’s important to note that individual Pomeranians may have unique nutritional needs based on factors such as activity level, metabolism, and any underlying health conditions. 

Common health issues that can affect Pomeranians.

Pomeranians, like any dog breed, can be prone to certain health issues. While not all Pomeranians will experience these problems, it’s important to be aware of common health issues that can affect them. Here are some of the health conditions commonly seen in Pomeranians:

  1. Dental Problems: Pomeranians are susceptible to dental issues such as periodontal disease, tooth decay, and tartar buildup. Regular dental care, including brushing their teeth, providing dental chews, and scheduling professional dental cleanings, can help maintain their oral health.
  2. Luxating Patella: Luxating patella is a condition where the kneecap (patella) slips out of its normal position. This can cause limping, lameness, and discomfort. In severe cases, surgery may be required to correct the issue.
  3. Tracheal Collapse: Pomeranians have a delicate trachea, which can be prone to collapsing. This can cause coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing, especially during exercise or excitement. Proper weight management, using a harness instead of a collar for walking, and avoiding excessive strain on the neck can help manage this condition.
  4. Allergies: Pomeranians can develop allergies to certain foods, environmental allergens (such as pollen or dust mites), or substances they come into contact with. Allergies can manifest as skin itching, redness, ear infections, or gastrointestinal issues. Identifying and managing the allergens, such as through dietary changes or allergy medication, may be necessary.
  5. Eye Problems: Pomeranians can be prone to various eye problems, including cataracts, dry eye (keratoconjunctivitis sicca), progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), and tear duct issues. Regular eye examinations, proper grooming around the eyes, and prompt veterinary attention for any signs of eye discomfort or vision changes are important.
  6. Heart Disease: Pomeranians can develop heart conditions, including congestive heart failure and mitral valve disease. Symptoms may include coughing, exercise intolerance, difficulty breathing, and lethargy. Regular veterinary check-ups and monitoring can help detect and manage heart conditions.
  7. Hypothyroidism: Hypothyroidism is a condition where the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. This can lead to symptoms such as weight gain, lethargy, hair loss, and skin problems. Medication and ongoing monitoring by a veterinarian are typically required to manage this condition.
  8. Obesity: Pomeranians can be prone to weight gain, which can contribute to various health issues. Maintaining a healthy weight through portion control, a balanced diet and regular exercise is crucial for their overall health and well-being.

It’s important to note that not all Pomeranians will develop these health issues, and responsible breeding practices can help reduce the prevalence of certain genetic conditions.

Lifespan and life expectancy of a Pomeranian

Pomeranians have a lifespan of 12 to 16 years. However, it’s not uncommon for some Pomeranians to live beyond 16 years with proper care and a healthy lifestyle.

It’s important to note that individual Pomeranians may have unique health considerations that can impact their lifespan. Some Pomeranians may be more prone to certain health issues, such as dental problems or heart conditions, which can potentially affect their longevity.

Responsible breeding practices that prioritize the health and genetic diversity of the breed can also contribute to longer and healthier lifespans.

To help promote a longer and healthier life for your Pomeranian, it’s essential to provide them with a balanced diet, regular exercise, proper veterinary care, preventive measures (such as vaccinations and parasite control), dental care, and a safe and loving environment.

Regular check-ups with a veterinarian and addressing any health concerns promptly can also help identify and manage potential health issues early on, potentially contributing to a longer and higher quality of life for your Pomeranian.

Best practices for introducing a Pomeranian to children.

Pomeranian temperament

Introducing a Pomeranian to children requires careful supervision and guidance to ensure a positive and safe interaction for both the dog and the children. Here are some best practices for introducing a Pomeranian to children:

1. Teach Children Proper Behavior: Educate children about appropriate behavior around dogs, emphasizing the importance of being gentle, and respectful, and not overwhelming the dog with excessive noise or rough play. Teach them to avoid pulling the dog’s tail, ears, or fur.

2. Supervise Interactions: Always supervise interactions between the Pomeranian and children, especially during the initial stages. Monitor their behavior closely to ensure the safety and well-being of both the dog and the children. Never leave young children alone with the dog unsupervised.

3. Gradual Introduction: Initially, introduce the Pomeranian and children in a calm and controlled environment. Allow the dog and children to become familiar with each other’s presence, using a gradual and positive approach. Keep the interactions short and supervised, gradually increasing the duration as the dog and children become more comfortable with each other.

4. Positive Reinforcement: Encourage positive interactions between the Pomeranian and children by rewarding gentle and appropriate behavior. Teach children to offer treats and praise when the dog responds positively to their presence or commands.

5. Teach Boundaries: Teach children to respect the dog’s boundaries and personal space. Help them understand that the dog may need quiet time or a safe space where they can retreat and relax without being disturbed.

6. Teach Proper Handling: Show children how to properly handle the Pomeranian, including supporting the dog’s body and avoiding rough handling. Teach them to approach the dog calmly and avoid sudden movements that may startle or frighten the dog.

7. No Forced Interactions: Never force a Pomeranian to interact with children if they show signs of fear, stress, or discomfort. Respect the dog’s boundaries and allow them to approach the children at their own pace. Encourage the children to give the dog space and time to adjust.

8. Supervised Playtime: Once the Pomeranian and children are comfortable with each other, supervised playtime can be introduced. Encourage gentle and interactive play, such as playing with toys or engaging in activities that both the dog and children enjoy.

9. Ongoing Education: Continuously educate children about responsible pet ownership and the needs of the Pomeranian. Teach them about the importance of proper feeding, grooming, and respecting the dog’s routine and boundaries.

10. Seek Professional Guidance: If you have concerns or if the Pomeranian shows signs of discomfort or anxiety around children, consider seeking guidance from a professional dog trainer or animal behaviorist. They can provide specific advice and strategies to help ensure a positive and safe interaction between the Pomeranian and the children.


Pomeranian temperament is an amazing blend of intelligence, playfulness, and loyalty. These small dogs possess a big personality and love to be the center of attention. While they can be bold and confident, they also have a sensitive side that requires gentle handling and positive reinforcement during training.

Pomeranians are known for their affectionate nature and strong bonds with their human companions. They thrive on companionship and enjoy being part of the family. Their alertness and tendency to be vocal make them excellent watchdogs, always ready to alert their owners to any potential threats.

Despite their small size, Pomeranians have a spirited energy that requires regular exercise and mental stimulation. They enjoy interactive playtime and walks, which help keep them physically and mentally fit. Early socialization and proper training are crucial to ensure they grow into well-rounded and well-behaved dogs.